Notes for GMAT AWA

Notes for GMAT AWA

My personal notes for GMAT AWA.

GMAT 写作要求

  1. 陈述文章内容和逻辑链条;
  2. 分析文章的逻辑缺陷所在;
  3. 提供改进措施(非必须,锦上添花)。

文章结构

开头段:四句话

  1. 简单复述文章结论 => C;
  2. 简单回顾逻辑链条 => R;
  3. 表明论证中存在的问题 => F;
  4. 过渡。

A Demo:
Merely based on questionable assumption/evidence, the statement draws the conclusion that___.
To substantiate/support this conclusion, the arguer points that___. In addition, he indicates that___. Furthermore, he cites the results of a survey/study/poll/review in support of this conclusion. At first glance, this argument appears to be somewhat convincing, bue further reflection reveals that it suffers from several problems which should be addressed in the argument.

正文段:三种排序方法

  1. 顺序式攻击;
  2. 主次式攻击;
  3. 让步式攻击。 => 推荐

顺序式正文首段

  1. The first problem with this argument is that …
  2. Another problem that weakens the logic of this argument is that …
  3. Lastly, it is necessary to point out the last flaw involved in this argument that …

逻辑式段首过渡

  1. Even if A, …
  2. Adimittedly(诚然), …., …
  3. While this may be true in some cases, it is equally possible that …

结尾段

To sum up, this arguer fails to substantiate his claim that …, because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer maintains. To make the argument more convincing. the author would have to provide more infomation with regard to … Additionally, he would have to demonstrate that …. If the argument had included the given factors discussed above, it woud have been more thorough and logically acceptable.

十大逻辑错误

1. 调查类错误

  1. Procedure
    1. Selective sample;
    2. Quantity of the sample;
    3. Are the respondents being forthright?
  2. Result
    • Do the statistics make any meaningfulness?
  3. Whot conducted the survey? (non-aligned party?)
  4. When was the survey conducted?
  • In the argument, the arguer did not specify how the sample was selected. If the sample selection is not random, then errors may occur.
  • Nor did the arguer specify the relative size of the sample size to the overall size. Even if the sample selection is random, it will be unrepresentative if the number of samples is too small relative to the population.
  • Since the mean is the average of all observations, it is vulnerable to extreme values / outliers.

调查类错误的攻击原理:Double Q => Quantity & Quality

  • 有绝对数值就攻击相对数值;
  • 有相对数值就攻击绝对数值。

调查类错误的标志词:survey / study / sample / respondent / response / answer / 250 / 69\% / many / most (含糊)

2. 因果类错误

分类:

  1. Non sequitur => 无因果关系
    And we can see why a non sequitur is an invalid argument.
  2. 时序因果;
  3. 同时性因果;
  4. 因果混淆。

无因果 Demo

The arguer fails to establish the causal relationship between A and B. It is highly possible that other factors contribute to B. For instance, B might have been resulted from C. It is also likely that D caused B. Lacking evidence that links A to B, It is presumptuous to suggest A was responsible for B.


时序性因果错误 Demo

Based on the fact that A occurred after B, the editor infers that B should be responsible for A. However, the sequence of these events, in itself, does not suffice to prove that the earlier development caused the latter one. It might have resulted from some other events instead. C, D, E … to just a few possibilities. Without ruling out scenarios such as these, the editor cannot establish a cause-and-effect relationship between A and B upon which the editor’s recommendation depends.


同时性因果 Demo

The argument observes a correlation between A and B. then concludes that the former is the cause of the latter. However, the argument fails to rule out other possible explanations for B. For example, B might have resulted from C and D. Any of these factors might lead to B. Without ruling out all other factors, it is unfair to conclude that A is response for B.


3. 条件错误

Demo

The editor’s recommendation depends on the assumption that no factors other than A caused D. However, common sense informs us that this assumption is a poor one, since A alone might not a constitute sufficient condition to cause D. A myriad of other factors, including B or C, might also be necessary for D to happen. To specific, B 和 C 如何是D成立的条件, without ruling out these and other possible causes, the editor cannot justifiably conclude that D is directly attributed to A.

4. 非此即彼类错误

标志词:either … or …
反驳:A B 可以共存

Demo 1

The author argues that there are two alternative solutions / explanations for A – either B or C can explain / solve A. This “either-or” argument if fallacious in that it ignores other possible cause of C. Perhaps D, or perhaps E.

Demo 2

Even assuming A is not the reason for C, the author falsely assumes that C must be attributable to B. This “either-or” argument is fallacious in that it ignores other possible cause of C. Perhaps D, or perhaps E.

Demo 3

The editorial seems to make two irreconcilable claims. One is that A; the other is B. However, this assumption presents a false dilemma, since A, B are not necessarily mutually exclusive alternatives.

5. 考虑不全面

  1. 考虑问题不全面
    • Failing to weigh advantages and disadvantages thoroughly;
    • Profit = Revenue - Cost.
  2. 考虑问题不全面的攻击原理
    抓住 advantages 和 disadvantages 的关系。

Demo

The author’s conclusion that …. is unwarranted. Profit is a factor relating to not only revenue but also cost. It’s entirely possible that the cost of A, or other costs associated with B, C will offset even outweigh the revenue. Besides, a myriad of other unexpected occurences, such as unfavorable economic depression, might prevent … from being as profitable as argument predicts.

Structure:

  1. 指出错误的位置;
  2. 点出错误的原因;
  3. 指出可能性;
  4. 标志性的结尾。

考虑问题不全面类的标志词:

  • 名词类:disadvantage, drawback(n. 缺点,不利条件;退税), advantage, demerit(n. 缺点,短处;过失), merit(n. 优点,价值;功绩;功过; vt. 值得; vi. 应受报答),value, worthness; pros and cons, revenue, income, proceeds(n. 收入,收益;实收款项), profit, margin, gain, cost, feasibility.
  • 动词类:consider, balance, weigh, compare;
  • 形容词类:all-round, all-sided, one-sided, unilateral(adj. 单边的;[植] 单侧的;单方面的;单边音;(父母)单系的).

6. 时间外推类错误

攻击方法:1. 假设不变的对象是什么?2. 该对象可能发生的改变是什么?

Demo

The author claims that 将来, because 过去. This assumption is unwarranted because things rarely remain the same over extended period of time. There are likely all kinds of difference between 过去 and 将来, … examples… Any of these scenarios, if true, would serve to undermine the author’s claim.

7. 论据含糊类错误

标志词:vague(adj. 模糊的;含糊的;不明确的;暧昧的), invalid, void, ill-defined, indistinct(adj. 模糊的,不清楚的;朦胧的;难以清楚辨认的), unclear.
错误类比的标志词: similar, same, nearby, neighboring.

Deom

The arguer’s recommendation relies on what might be a poor analogy(n. 类比;类推;类似) between A and B. The analogy falsely depends on the assumption that … in both A and B are similar. However, it is entirely possible that A 和 B 的差异. In short, without accounting for such possible difference between A and B, the arguer cannot prove that B will reap the similar benefits from the proposed method.

错误类比写作词汇归纳:

  • 名词类:analogy, comparison, similarity, comparability, parallelism.
  • 动词类:resemble, differ, vary, distinguish, discriminate.
  • 形容词/副词:analogically, homologous, analogous, distinct, dissimilar, disparate(adj. 不同的;不相干的;全异的. n. 无法相比的东西).

8. 范围变化类错误

  1. 概念错误;
  2. 放大范围错误;
  3. 缩小范围类错误。

标志词:nationwaide / statewide / throughout / overall / across / average.

偷换概念的攻击 Demo

A problem involves the definition of A. The arguer fails to define the critical term, if A is defined as B, the C is irrelevant to A. In short , without a clear definition of A, it is impossible to assess the strength of the argument.

放大范围错误的攻击 Demo

The argument resets on the assumption that 个体案例 typify 整体情况. If this is not the case, then it is entirely possible that 在另外一个地方,上述个案的结果不会发生在其他地方, Thus lacking more infomation about 整体情况, it is difficult to reach the conclusion that …

缩小类错误的攻击 Demo

One problem with the argument is that it assumes that the nationwaide / statement statistics about … applies equally to 个体成员, Yet this might not be the case, for a varity of reasons, perhaps … ; perhaps … . Without ruling out such possibilities, the author cannot justifiably conclude that … .

写作词汇归纳

  1. 名词:scope(n. 范围;余地;视野;眼界;导弹射程 vt. 审视), localization, diversity, variety, individual, unit, whole;
  2. 动词:extend, expand, broaden, enlarge, spread, shrink, differentiate, distinguish;
  3. 形容词/副词:overall, generally, extensive, entire, diverse, dissimilar, multiplex.

无理假设类错误

Demo
The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that …. However, no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. For example, it is most likely that …. Therefore, the argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility.

考虑不周

  • 利弊分析中的考虑不周
    In support of its own conclusion that …, the passage provides evidence that …. What the passage fails to see is that …, and that …. Given these possibilities, the passage’s conclusion that … is seriously undermined.

  • 利润问题中的考虑不周
    Profit is determined by revenue and cost. The passage merely mentions that the revenue will increase/cost will decrease, and this evidence alone cannot be relied on to predict how the profit will change. It is likely that…

因果类错误

  • 错误归因
    The passage suggest a causal relationship between A and B. / The passage seems to suggest that A is the reason why B. This, however might not be sure. There might be many other factors that may have contributed to / lead to B. For example, …. Without accounting for these factors, the passage cannot reasonably suggest that A caused B.

  • 时序因果
    Based on the fact that A happens before B, the passage suggests that A caused B. However, a mere chronological sequence does not necessarily imply causal relationship. It may turn out that B is not even related to A. The real reason behind B might be factors ignored by the passage: … . All these factors may have led to B, thus rendering passage’s claim unwarranted.

  • 同时性因果
    Upon pointing out A happened at the same time with B, the passage implies that they causal related, but the fact is A and B might just coincide with each other, with no meaningful connections whatsoever. It is possible that the other factors caused B, for example, …. If the passage does not take the aforementioned scenarios, then it cannot reasonably suggest that ….

条件类错误

  • 条件不充分
    By arguing that 为了实现A,应该做B, the passage clearly believes that B constitutes sufficient condition for A to happen. The fact, however, may be that B alone cannot guarantee A. A myriad of other factors may also be necessary for A. For example, … . It is therefore unreasonable to suggest that …

  • 条件不成立
    The passage suggests that by doing A, B may happen. The problem is that factors ignored by the passage may render A unless in effecting B. Maybe …, or maybe …. Given thse possibilities, the passage cannot reasonably suggest that doing A can cause B.

  • 条件不必要
    The passage suggests that A must happen for B to happen. This claim is wrong since A is not necessary in realizing B. There are factors, independent of A, that can contribute to B / lead to B. For example, … . Therefore, it is fallacious to conclude that …

非此即彼类错误

  • 全盘肯定
    The passage concludes that either A or B can explain / help achieve … However, it does not provide any evidence as why they cannot coexist. It is entirely possible that not only A and B can coexist. they will togather better explain/effect …

  • 全盘否定
    According to the passage, either A or B can explain / help achieve …. The fact, however, may be that neither of these two can explain / help achieve … It is likely that A 如何不能得出结论, and that B 如何不能得出结论. Without accounting for these possibilities / factors, the passage’s conclusion is clearly unwarranted.

时间外推类的错误

  • 现在推将来
    The passage suggests that because 现在发生的事情, 未来也会发生. However, the mere fact A exists now does not necessarily ensure that it will still exist in the future. It is possible that …, or that … both of which could have stopped A from happening in the future, and thus the passage cannot logically support its conclusion that …

  • 过去推现在
    Just based on the fact that A happened before / two months ago / in the past, the passage claims that B(原文结论). The reasoning is flawed since what was true in the past does not necessarily guarantee that is so now / in the future. It may turn out that variables not mentioned by the passage could have stopped A from happening. Therefore, the conclusion thus derived by the passage may not hold true in light of the discussed possibilities. / the proposal suggested by the passage may not effect the desired result.

错误类比

  • 文章不提及相似性
    The passage argues that what is true for A is also true for B, yet it provides no evidence whatsoever as to how A and B are comparable to each other. It may turn out that (how A and B are different), and thus the passage connot reach its conclusion that …

  • 文章提及相似性
    Merely based on the fact that A and B are similar in … the passage argues that, like A, B will also … This lines of reasoning is flawed since unmentioned differences may exist between A and B, and therefore what is true for A is not necessarily true for B. Ignoring these difference, the passage clearly cannot reach its conclusion that …

范围类错误

  • 偷换概念
    Based on the fact that …, the passage concludes/suggests/proposes that … This reasoning is faulty since there is a gap between its premise and conclusion: whereas the evidence mentions A, the conclusion argues that A1. Without explaining how they are the same, the passage cannot reasonably conclude/suggest that …

  • 范围扩大
    What is true for an individual does not necessarily apply to the group which it belongs. The passage merely provides evidence with regard to 个体, and this is unsufficient to prove that 整体. It is likely that … is very different from …

  • 范围缩小
    Just because 整体, the passage cannot argue that 个体 will be the same. It is possible that 个体 despite the fact that 整体. Before the passage proves how 个体 is comparable to 整体, its conclusion is logically flawed/defective.

调查类错误

  • 证据代表性
    To support its conclusion that …, the passage mentions a study / poll / review suggesting that … This evidence may be unreliable since the passage does not clarify / specify whether the samples / subjects are selected randomly. If not, then the result of the study may not representative and thus cannot be relied upon to reach any meaningful conclusion / reach the conclusion that …

  • 证据的代表性
    The passage was written by …, who may very well benefit from the passage’s conclusion / suggestion that … Therefore, it is reasonable to suspect that the result of the survey / study was manipulated in a way that may help the writter reach his / her final conclusion. For example, the study / survey could have deliberately ignored evidence such as …, which if present in the study / survey, would have undermined the author’s own argument. To make the argument more convincing, the passage would have to provide with clear references strong evidence from a non-aligned third party.

  • 证据的时效性
    To support its conclusion that … , the passage mentions a study / survey / poll / review suggesting that … This evidence may be unreliable since the passage does not clarify / specify when the study / poll / review was conducted. If it was carried out many years ago, then the passage cannot use it as evidence sine it might have been too old to present whatever is true present.

  • 无理假设
    The passage’s conclusion relies on an unsaid assumption that .. Before proving that this assumption is true, the passage cannot reach its conclusion, since it is possible that … All of these possibilities, if not accounted for, could have undermined the argument.


A full Demo

In the article, Professor Tylor asserts the superiority of an English teaching model by introducing a study in which students at Jones who participate in the model speak more fluently then do most foreign language majors from other universities. Convincing as it may seem, this line of reasoning suffers from three major flaws — from the viability of its evidence to the process from which its conclusion is drawn.

As mentioned, the evidence that Professor Taylor employs is inadequate to support his conclusion. He does not provide any clarification as how students at Jone are comparable to other university graduates, and as such he cannot reasonably suggest that the Jones students’ fluency in speaking English is the direct result of the proposed language instruction model, since it is likely that, before partaking in the program, students at Jones are already more proficient in speaking than is the case with other university graduates. If so, then no doubt the study cannot demonstrate how much, if at all, the language instruction model has actually improved language fluency.

[Even better] As mentioned, Professor Taylor’s evidence is inadequate to support his conclusion. Ignoring to clarify how students at Jones are comparable to order university graduates, he cannot reasonably suggest that Jones students’ fluency in speaking English is the direct result of the proposed language instruction model, since …

Even if all study participants are indeed similar, Professor Taylor still fails to prove that it is his model that improved speaking for students at Jones. In analyzing he clearly attributes the higher language fluency to his instruction model, but he does not lend any support to this causal relationship. It is likely that other unmentioned factors happening during the study are the reason behind the improvement: an online speaking course that Jones students are attending or some televison series that they enjoy. Without eliminating these possibilities, Professor Taylor cannot conclude that it is his program that improvement students’s proficiency in speaking English.

Even when he validate the questionable causal relationship between the improvement in language fluency and the proposed instruction model, yet another problem remains: the ability to speaking fluency alone is not the only criterion when gauging a method’s “superiority”. If one is to say that a method of language teaching is superior, he or she should demonstrate how it is beneficial to four basic skills: listening, speaking, writting and reading. If as it turns out, students who join the proposed program only speak better, and their ability to read or write actually decline after learning in the model(Students who live with English-speaking families typically speak more but read and write less), then the proposed language instruction model might not be considered superior as it stands.

In conclusion, Professor Taylor fails to substantiate his claim that the proposed method is superior. In order to be more convincing, he would have to eliminating all other variables. before and during the study, except the one discussed: whether students participate in the language instruction model. He would also have to demonstrate that at least, program participants’ other language ability did not falter after after the study. If all the aforementioned factors were taken into account, his conclusion would have been more thorough and logically acceptable.

标准书面英语

句式变换

插入语:

  • If the author does not account for the aforementioned possibilities / factors, his argument will be seriously undermined.

  • => All the aforementioned possibilities / factors, if not accounted for / if not considered in the study, will seriously undermine the author’s argument.


  • Therefore, even if the passage shows the proposed changes are useful, it cannot prove how much the changes can really improve the company’s profits.
  • => Therefore, the passage does not prove how much, if at all (如果有的话), the proposed change can ….

时间状语变换:

  • Before the study is conducted, it is likely that students at Jones already speak more fluently than do most students from other universities.
  • => It is likely that, before the study is conducted, students at Jones already speak more fluently than do most students from other universities.

  • When the author claims that the company’s cost will decrease, he tacitly assumes that food processing is similar to color film processing.
  • => The author, upon claiming that the company’s cost will decrease, tacitly assumes that food processing is similar to color film processing.

让步状语变换

  • Though the evidence sounds somewhat convincing. it is inadequate to support the author’s final conclusion.
  • => The evidence, though it may seem, is inadequate to support the author’s conclusion / proposal.

  • Therefore, even though the passage has provided some evidence which suggests the similarities between the two companies, it still cannot claim that …
  • => Therefore, the passage, its evidence suggesting similarities between the two companies notwithstanding(尽管,虽然), cannot reach its final conclusion that …

非限定定语从句用作插入语

As (不能用 which) might be expected, John was adimitted to the university. (as 代替后面的句子,在从句中作主语.)

常用的用作插入语的 as 从句:

as 从句 中文释义
as (is) known to all 众所周知
as is often the case 情况常常如此
as can be imagined 可以想象得出
as often happens 这种情况常常发生
as has been said before 如前所述
as has been suggested 正如已经指出的
as can be divined from … 正如从 … 可以推出的
as is hoped 正如希望的那样
as is usual (with sb.) (某人)经常如此
as is natural 很自然
as is anticipated 如所预料的
as is the custom with sth. 某物经常如此
as is evidenced from … 从 … 那里被证明的

e.g.

  • A company’s revenue is, as ofter happends, determined by multiple factors, such as … , so…

  • Perhaps an economic recession is setting in, for example, the country’s manufacturing could be suffering form stagnant growth.

  • => Perhaps an economic recession is setting in, as is evidenced by, for instance, stagnant growth in manufacturing.

  • The passage does not specify whether participants are randomly selected. Therefore, if the study select it participants only in city X, its outcome is inadequate to represent the national average.
  • => Should the study select its participants only in city X, as may be possible since the passage does not specify whether participants are randomly selected, then its outcome is inadequate to represent the national average.

Only 作状语在句首表强调,句子部分倒装

  • The author can come to sound conclusion only when he has sampled enough students and did so randomly across the school.
  • => Only when the author has sampled enough students and so randomly across the school, can he come to a sound conclusion.

  • The arguer performed her research only in one region, so her conclusion may not be representative of the national average.
  • => Only in one region did the arguer perform her research, and as such her conclusion may not be representative of the national average.

Never 等具有否定意义/形式的词或词组居于句首,句子部分倒装

  • A company’s revenue is rarely influenced by a single factor, so it is unreasonable to suggest that advertising alone can increase its revenue.
  • => Rarely is a company’s revenue influenced by a single factor, and thus it is unreasonable to suggest that advertising alone can increase its revenue.

  • The passage mentions little about the similarities between the two industries, yet it argues that is true for color film processing is also true for food processing.
  • => Little does the passage mention about the similarities between the two industries, yet it argues that what is true for color film processing is also true for food processing.

常见否定意义词汇/短语
never / little / rarely / in vain / hardly / barely / scarely / seldom / by no means / in no way / on no account / not until / in / under no circumstance / hardly … when .. / no sooner … than .. (一… 就…) / not often / neither .. nor … / no matter / still less

Now until the passage considers all the aforementioned factors will its conclusion becomes truly convincing.

比较状语从句倒装

than(对比)或 as(类比)引导的分句,如果谓语动词或是表语省略,且是两个句子的主语在比较,则该分句可以倒装,助动词在分句主语前。

  • If the passage had included all the discussed scenarios, its conclusion would have been more convincing than its current state is.
  • => If the passage had included all the discussed scenarios, its conclusion would have been more convincing than its current state.

  • Arguing that Early Bird coffee would increase its revenue, the passage clearly believes that the company would thrive(vi. 繁荣,兴旺;茁壮成长) as most of its counterparts(n. (契约)副本(counterpart的复数);相对物;相对应的人) did in the coffee-making industry.
  • => Arguing that EBC would increase its revenue, the passage clearly believes that the company would thrive as did most of its counterparts in the coffee-making industry.

让步状语从句倒装

  • Though the passage may seem convincing, it suffers from invalid evidence and causal oversimplification.
  • => Convincing as / though it may seem, the argument suffers from invalid evidence and causal oversimplification.

  • Decline as / though the cost may, how the revenue is going to change remains unkown, so it’s unreasonable to assert that its profits will increase.

虚拟语气条件句倒装

  • If the passage had included all the discsused scenarios, its conclusion would have been more convincing that is its current state.
  • => Had the passage include all the discsused scenarios, its conclusion ….

  • If the company were indeed similar to its competitors, then the author could argue that it would lose revenue as did other companies in the industry.
  • => Were the company indeed similar to its competitors, then the author could argue that it would lose revenue as did other companies in the industry.

分词修饰

替换时间状语从句

  • When the passage mentions that crime rates increase as violence in movies becomes more common, it clearly believes that they causally related.
  • => Mentioning that crime rates increase as violence in movie becomes more common, it …

替换原因或结果

  • The passage had included all the discussed scenarios, its conclusion would have been more convincing that it its current state.
  • => Had the passage include all the discussed scenarios, its conclusion …

  • If the company were indeed similar to its competitors, then the author could argue that it would lose revenue as did other companies in the industry.
  • => Were the company indeed similar to its competitors, then the …

分词修饰

替换时间状语从句

  • When the passage mentions that crime rates increase as violence in movie becomes more common, it clearly believes that they are causally related.
  • => Mentioning that crime rates increase as violence in movie becomes more common, it …

替换原因或者结果

  • The passage ignores the differences between the two companies, and thus its conclusion is seriously undermined.
  • => The passage ignores the differences between the two companies, thereby seriously undermining its own conclusion.

独立主格

表原因
Because his study ignores crucial differences between the two cities, the author clearly cannot rely on it to derive any meaningful conclusions.

  • => His study Ignoring crucial differences between the two cities, the author clearly cannot rely on it to derive any meaningful conclusion.

  • Since crucial differences between the two cities are ignored by his study, the author clearly cannot depend on it to reach any meaningful conclusion.
  • => Crucial differences between the two cities ignored by his study, the author clearly cannot depend on it to reach any meaningful conclusion.

表时间

  • After the study supposed proved that people were keenly concerned about environmental issues, the passage went on proposing that the bank use logos from environment protection organizations.
  • => The study supposedly proving that people were keenly concerned about environmental issues, the passage went on proposing that the bank use logos from environment protection organizations.

unsplash-logoDrew Beamer

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